A 2014 report on aquaculture in Egypt presents some interesting information:
- Despite the pressure on water, Egypt has the largest aquaculture industry in Africa with a market value of over $1.3 billion.
- The industry now provides 65% of the country’s fish needs, with virtually all the output coming from small and medium-scale privately owned farms.
- The main farmed fish is Nile tilapia and Egypt is the world’s second largest producer of farmed tilapia after China. Grey mullet and carp are also farmed, sometimes in mixed ponds with tilapia.
- From small levels of production in the early 1990s fish farming has expanded rapidly while capture fishing has remained fairly constant, even declining somewhat after peaking at the beginning of the 21st century.
- Aquaculture is also important in providing employment to an estimated 100,000 people of whom 50% are youth.
- With the exception of Fayoum, aquaculture takes place in the Nile Delta region and mainly around the Northern Lakes area.
Citation: Mur, R. 2014. Development of the aquaculture value chain in Egypt: Report of the National Innovation Platform Workshop, Cairo, 19-20 February 2014. Cairo: WorldFish.
An Industry Assessment of Tilapia Farming in Egypt
Dr. Adel A. Shaheen, B.V.Sc., M.V.Sc., Ph.D.
Professor of fish diseases & management Head Department of fish diseases & management
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Benha University Moshtohor – Toukh – Egypt
2.5. Status of fish production in Egypt
Capture fisheries in Egypt are in decline due to; overfishing, pollution, illegal, unreported and Unregulated fishing (IUU), relaxation in the implementation of laws and regulations, lack of interest in clearing Straits and waterways, poor sustainable management of fisheries and aquaculture, illegal fishing operations of fry. In addition to the building of Aswan High Dam (that reduced the annual flood cycle of the Nile), the application of partial pond flushing, aeration and sex reversal are the major steps that contributed to the expansion,
intensification and growth of total tilapia production in ponds in Egypt.
The General Authority for Fish Resources Development (GAFRD) planned two-sided strategy aims to increase the productivity of freshwater aquaculture operations, while encouraging investment in marine aquaculture.
A cooperation agreement between Egypt’s General Authority for Fish Resources Development (GAFRD) and Vietnam’s Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) inked in May sets a framework for joint fisheries development. The protocol encourages researchers, trainers and quality control technicians in the two countries to share data, and calls for exchange visits of fisheries and aquaculture officials
A series of high quality aquaculture training videos, designed to teach Egyptian fish farmers the industry’s best management practices, has recently been released.
Produced by WorldFish, an international nonprofit research organization, the ten short videos are being used to train local fish farmers in the most effective ways to boost the production and quality of farmed fish.
Available in Arabic with English subtitles, the videos cover all aspects of aquaculture from pond preparation and fish health care, to how to transport and handle live fish.
“These videos are good learning tool for fish farmers to show them the industry’s best management practices in a simplified way”, says Dr. Diaa Al-Kenawy, Research Scientist at WorldFish.
“Both the trainers and the farmers found the videos very useful because they explain all fish farming stages from site selection and pond design to harvest and post-harvest treatment”, he adds.
The videos are part of the Improving Employment and Income through the Development of Egypt’s Aquaculture Sector (IEIDEAS) project, which aims to strengthen and develop the country’s US$1.5 billion aquaculture industry and generate more employment in the sector.
The IEIDEAS project is part of the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish, which aims to increase the productivity of small-scale livestock and fish systems in sustainable ways, making meat, milk and fish more available and affordable to poor consumers across the developing world.
Strengthening the aquaculture industry in Egypt will help to secure the livelihoods of over 100,000 men and women employed in the sector, and ensure an affordable source of animal protein for the millions of poor who depend on fish.
While the videos are targeted at Egyptian fish farmers, they offer industry tips that will benefit pond-based aquaculture producers around the world.
Watch the videos. http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_5s5CPGqCKQtv15flpx4UKDltm3JyEIM
WorldFish, a member of the CGIAR Consortium, is an international, nonprofit research organization committed to reducing poverty and hunger through fisheries and aquaculture.
CGIAR is a global agriculture research partnership for a food secure future. Its science is carried out by the 15 research centers who are members of the CGIAR Consortium in collaboration with hundreds of partner organizations.
For more information or to request an interview please contact:
Diane Shohet, Director, Communications and Marketing, WorldFish
Tel: +6017 474 8606
Luanda — The first National Centre for Tilapia Hatchery will be inaugurated on Friday in Massangano commune, Cambambe municipality, northern Cuanza Norte province, Angop learnt on Thursday.
According to a press release from the Ministry of Fisheries, the project, an investment estimated at 10 million US dollars, will have a juvenile fish production unit (newly hatched fish) Tilapia.
The First National Tilapia Hatchery Centre will have an installed capacity of an annual output of two million of juvenile fish of quality, to enhance the aquaculture sector, specifically in the promotion of freshwater fish culture.
In Angola, aquaculture is listed as one of the priority sub-sectors and can play an important role in the diversification of the economy, with the potential to intense development, turning the country into a major producing nation of fish.
Aquaculture also aims to integrate its products in the supply chain of fisheries, aiming to reduce imports and create surpluses for exports.
The undertaking is the first of its kind infrastructure in the country, equipped with the latest technology and highly qualified professional teams and has a valence of research focused on training future researchers and others of the fisheries sector.
Investment combines the economic aspect of intensive production with the relevant scientific and social aspects, being generator of new job opportunities.
The larval reproduction stage includes reproduction tanks and breeders management incubator for hatching eggs, larvae management tanks and also breeding pre-tanks.
At its full operation, the centre will be able to especially encourage small aquaculture production of many families of Cuanza Norte province and other neighboring provinces.
For more information, see Ohio Aquaculture Industry Analysis
Some Ohio tilapia farms:
Ripple Rock Fish Farms
6805 Old Stagecoach Road,
Frazeysburg, Ohio, 43822
Sugar Creek Fishery
7799 Sugar Creek Rd
Lima, OH 45801
Regulatory Issues in Ohio Regarding Aquaculture
By: Laura Tiu, Aquaculture Specialist, OSU South Centers
Aquaculture is a form of agriculture in Ohio.
Ohio Revised Code 1.61. “Agriculture” defined.
As used in any statute except section 303.01 or 519.01 of the Revised Code, “agriculture” includes farming; ranching; aquaculture; apiculture and related apicultural activities, production of honey, beeswax, honeycomb, and other related products; horticulture; viticulture, winemaking, and related activities; animal husbandry, including, but not limited to, the care and raising of livestock, equine, and fur-bearing animals; poultry husbandry and the production of poultry and poultry products; dairy production; the production of field crops, tobacco, fruits, vegetables, nursery stock, ornamental shrubs, ornamental trees, flowers, sod, or mushrooms; timber; pasturage; any combination of the foregoing; the processing, drying, storage, and marketing of agricultural products when those activities are conducted in conjunction with, but are secondary to, such husbandry or production; and any additions or modifications to the foregoing made by the director of agriculture by rule adopted in accordance with Chapter 119. of the Revised Code.
In a recent survey of State Aquaculture Coordinators, the 17 states that define aquaculture find it has a number of benefits:
- sales and use tax exemptions
- building code exemptions
- right-to-farm laws developed to create a legal buffer between farms and encroaching suburbanites
- allows for sovereign submerged land leases
- protects farmers who follow BMPs from environmental lawsuits
- provides for an ombudsman to resolve issues with regulatory agencies
- disaster assistance from USDA
- access to land, water appropriations, and discharge exemptions provided to agricultural operations
- provides a seat on the state’s Agricultural Commission and representation by Farm Bureau
- makes theft of farmed fish punishable
- allows exemption from wildlife regulations on take method, season, limit, and size
- allows producers to file for agricultural land tax rates
- provides for coordinated fish health monitoring efforts
Aquaculture permits in Ohio.
Fee: $50.00 – $100.00
Ohio Revised Code 1533.632. Aquaculture permits in Ohio.
Permitting for production of aquaculture species is provided by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR), Division of Wildlife.
The Aquaculture Law Digest is accessible on-line as ODNR Publication 61.
Permits are annual from January 1 – December 31.
Transportation and Baitfish permits information available on the same webpage.
Fish Importation into Ohio
Aquatic fish health is regulated by the Ohio Department of Agriculture
Find more information on this website: http://www.ncrac.org/Info/StateImportRegs/ohio.htm#Importation
Storm Water Discharge permits – Ohio EPA
Fee: $200.00 – $500.00
As of March 10, 2003, if your construction project disturbs 1 or more acres of ground, you must get a permit to discharge storm water from your site. If your project disturbs less than 1 acre but is part of a larger plan of development or sale, you also need a permit to discharge storm water from the site. This includes excavation of ponds.
For more information: http://www.epa.ohio.gov/dsw/storm/construction_index.aspx
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit
Specific language from Federal Register 40 CFR part 451, Vol. 68, No
162 August 24, 2004:
On June 30, 2001, EPA finalized a new rule establishing regulations for concentrated aquatic animal production (CAAP), or farm raised fish facilities. The regulation will apply to approximately 245 facilities that generate wastewater from their operations and discharge that wastewater directly into waters of the United States. This rule will help reduce discharges of conventional pollutants, primarily total suspended solids. The rule will also help reduce non-conventional pollutants such as nutrients. To a lesser extent, the rule will reduce drugs that are used to manage diseased fish, chemicals used to clean net pens, and toxic pollutants (metals and PCBs). The final rule applies to direct discharges of wastewater from existing and new facilities that produce at least 100,000 pounds of fish a year and discharge at least 30 days a year and facilities that produce at least 100,000 pounds of fish a year in net pens or submerged cages.
Water Withdrawal Facilities Registration
The Water Withdrawal Facilities Registration Program, as established in H.B. 662 by the Ohio General Assembly in 1988, implements one of the objectives of the Great Lakes Charter in Ohio. Section 1521.16 of the Ohio Revised code requires any owner of a facility, or combination of facilities, with the capacity to withdraw water at a quantity greater than 100,000 gallons per day (GPD) to register such facilities with the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR), Division of Water. The Water Withdrawal Facility Registration (WWFR) Program will provide information of great importance to the citizens of the state. Water, one of our most basic and precious natural resources, needs to be studied more intensely and water resource planners need reliable information to plan for the future. The state’s economy depends on water and economic development will continue to place increased demands on this critical resource.
Water withdrawal forms: http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/Water/wwfr/default/tabid/4265/Default.aspx
Your aquaculture permit allows you to sell fish live or whole on ice. If you want to process your fish product, you fall under additional regulations.
On-farm retail: If it is 100% retail from the farm (no wholesaling), it does not fall under the federal or state seafood HACCP regulation, just the local health department.
Every “processor” must conduct a hazard analysis to determine whether they have likely food safety hazards that they must control. This processing falls under Federal HACCP regulations. For more information go to:
For HACCP questions in Ohio:
Diane R. McDaniel
Assistant to District Director
1600 Watermark Drive
Columbus, OH 43215
(614)487-1273 Ext 15
Engineering Design for Recirculating Aquaculture (RAS), Hydroponic, and Aquaponic Systems
This three day course (Tuesday – Thursday) reviews the basic engineering principles behind a successful recirculating system (RAS) design. The objective of this course is to provide sufficient information so that the participant will be able to design, construct, and manage their own RAS system. We also cover the basic principles of state-of-the-art hydroponic (plant) and aquaponic (fish and plants) techniques and cover the management of these systems. Several design options will be explored. Basic principles of business management for the small family farm will also be reviewed by guest speaker Michael Finnegan, CEO Continental Organics L.L.C.
The following topics will be addressed:
- Water quality monitoring and measurement
- Engineering design of individual unit processes
- System management
- Fish health management
- Economic and risk evaluation
- Indoor Shrimp
- Tours of local aquaculture/hydroponics facilities
A “distance” learning opportunity for aquaculture only is also offered.
At the conclusion of the workshop, participants will have the essential information necessary to design their own systems and have a fundamental knowledge of the principles influencing the numerous design options.
In addition, a Farm Tour will be made to Continental Organics Inc. (2 acres of hydroponics and a 100,000 lb/year tilapia system); see www.conorgnx.com for farm details (within 10 minutes of educational venue).
Location: Mount Saint Mary College
330 Powell Ave., Newburgh, NY 12550
Host Professor: Dr. Lynn Maelia, Chemistry
Dr. Michael B. Timmons
Aquaculture & Business Management
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
Dr. James M. Eberling
Aquaculture Systems Technologies, New Orleans, LA
Michael Finnigan, CEO
Continental Organics LLCNew Windsor, NY
For more information, see http://fish.bee.cornell.edu/
Hot on the heels of the launch of the floating raft cage culture system in November and an awareness building event for locally produced tilapia targeted at restaurants and supermarkets two weeks ago, last week, Devant Maharaj, the Minister of Food Production in Trinidad unveiled three other initiatives.
In his unprecedented and unrelenting efforts to support the long neglected Aquaculture Sector, Minister Maharaj commissioned a refurbished facility originally established in the 1950’s and re-branding it as the Aquaculture Demonstration Centre.
At the same event, there was also the signing of a MoU among several of his Ministry agencies and the predominant farmers group for the purchase of farmed tilapia, processing of the fish and subsequent sale of the product under a newly created TT Tilapia brand. These are all bold and never before seen initiatives in the aquaculture industry anywhere in the world and many countries would do well to pay attention to this model for aquaculture support and development.
Prospects of Tilapia Culture in Nepal
Excerpt from: Tilapia-An Introduction and Prospects of its Culture in Nepal
Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science
Rampur Campus, Rampur, Chitwan, Tribhuvan University, Nepal
Our Nature (2006)4:107-110
Though introduction of tilapia in Nepal has passed over a decade, its cultivation has not flourished. There is a general fear of displacement of indigenous fish species. Swar and Gurung (1988) found the reduction of 42 % in the yield of Mystus spp. and Puntius spp. after introduction of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in the Begnas lake of Pokhara valley. But biology of tilapia favors for its cultivation in Nepal. The climatic condition in hilly regions can control to an extent the over breeding activity of the fish. The minimum temperature of tolerance for Tilapia is 10ºC – 11ºC. It cannot survive below this temperature. The physiological condition can easily be exploited in Nepalese subtropical climate to control the population of tilapia.
For cultivation of the fish, coldwater bodies can be selected where temperature is rather favorable during summer for growth. Those water bodies can be used for stocking tilapia for 7-8 months and the fish would be harvested during winter months. Temperature below 10ºC will kill the remaining fish after the harvest and there will be no fear of wild propagation. Their population will be controlled naturally.
Terai region can be utilized for brood fish stocking and seed production. In this way seed production in Terai and grow out production in hilly region will be the best combination for tilapia cultivation without the fear of displacement of the indigenous fish species of the country.
Polyculture opportunities in the mid-hills of Nepal for resource poor farmers
John Davis. 2011. Polyculture opportunities in the mid-hills of Nepal for resource poor farmers. Ecological Aquaculture Studies & Reviews, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, R.I.
Nepal is a country of intense poverty and political upheaval. Many people live below the poverty level and there are many nongovernmental organizations at work within the borders of the country attempting to decrease the number of poor through the arming of the people with the tools necessary to become self-sufficient and raise their income levels while at the same time doing so in a way that improves social cohesion and the overall health of the population. I examined various methods and protocols for improving the living standards of the resource poor farmers with a focus on the utilization of aquaculture as a means to improve income, supplement diet and provide social stability and personal growth. The paper presents a suitable low cost solution to the issues facing resource poor farmers in Nepal through the establishment of an aquaculture network, with less reliance in inputs than more intensive practices.
Source: Fish Production Systems in Nepal
Madhav K Shrestha (Agriculture and Forestry University) and RN Mishra (National Fisheries and Aquaculture Program)
ROME – (November 14, 2014) – Fish farming will likely grow more than expected in the coming decade, offering a chance for improved nutrition for millions of people, especially in Asia and Africa, according to a new report.
Increased investment in the aquaculture sector – particularly in productivity-enhancing technologies including in the areas of water use, breeding, hatchery practices and feedstuff innovation – should boost farmed-fish production by as much as 4.14 percent per year through 2022, notably faster than the 2.54 percent growth forecast made earlier this year in a joint report by FAO and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
“The primary reason for increased optimism is that there is ample room for catching up with more productive technologies, especially in Asia, where many fish farmers are small and unable to foot the hefty capital outlays the industry requires to expand output without running into resource constraints,” said Audun Lem, a senior official at FAO’s Fisheries and Aquaculture Policy and Economics Division and one of the lead authors of the 120-page report.
Africa, with formidable water resources, should also host ongoing rapid growth of more than 5 percent a year, the fastest in the world but building on a very low current base level, according to the report.
Aquaculture is a young industry compared to livestock farming and has grown from virtually nothing in 1950 to a record production of 66.5 million tonnes in 2012, up almost thirty-fold since 1970. About 50 percent of the $127 billion in global fish exports in 2011 came from developing countries, which receive more net revenue from the fish trade than from their exports of tea, rice, cocoa and coffee combined, Lem said.
In terms of direct human consumption farmed fish in 2014 surpassed captured fish, which reached a plateau in the mid-1980s and is expected to grow only 5 percent over the next decade thanks largely to reduced waste as well as better gear reducing unwanted bycatch and improved fisheries management.
Global per capita fish consumption increased from 9.9 kilograms in 1970 to 19.1 kilograms in 2012, although rates vary substantially by and within regions. Africa, Latin America and the Near East have consumption levels of around half the global rate, while Asia, Europe and North America all have rates of about 21 kilograms per capita.
Fish prices in 2022 will be 27 percent higher than today in FAO’s baseline scenario, but up to 20 percent lower if aquaculture expands more quickly.
Fish has a special nutritional role Fish are the healthiest of meats, their farmed production has a far smaller carbon footprint than livestock, and they are also huge providers of the micronutrients people need. Beyond the energy and protein they supply, they lower the risk of coronary heart disease and improve cardio-vascular health. Fish are also supreme suppliers of long-chain n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), which are demonstrably linked to better cognitive development as measured by reading skills up to the age of 12.
“Fish is not just food,” says Jogeir Toppe, a FAO officer and expert on fish and nutrition. He cited the case of the mola, a pond fish in Bangladesh that has exceptionally high levels of zinc and iron and Vitamin A as well as 80 times the calcium content as tilapia. Similar pelagic species elsewhere, such as African lake sardines, have similar micronutrient profiles, but many indigenous fish have yet to be studied.
Those attributes are invaluable as 800,000 child deaths each year are attributable to zinc deficiency, 250 million children worldwide are at risk of vitamin A deficiency, and almost a third of the world’s population is iron deficient. Seafood is also practically the only natural source of iodine.
However, the new study noted that households with rising incomes often shift away from such humble types – what the industry calls “trash fish” – towards fattier and filet-friendly species such as carp which are less efficient providers of micronutrients. One reason is that the higher-status fish are often eaten as filets while the mola and its kin are typically eaten whole.
“The highest iron, zinc and calcium content of fish lies in their heads, bones and guts, which is often the part that gets thrown away, as with tuna,” said Toppe. Somewhat ironically, byproducts such as fish heads or the back-bones of Nile perch whose fresh fillets are exported may often be of higher nutritional value than the main product, he added.
Aquaculture governance challenges lie ahead FAO called upon policy makers to take such nutritional considerations aboard, especially in a phase of growing aquaculture operations.
DOWNLOAD “Maximizing the contribution of fish to human nutrition”: www.fao.org/3/a-i3963e.pdf
Fish farming ought also to be analysed through a broad food system lens, as it impacts a host of factors, ranging from environmental impacts and hydropower projects through tenure rights for smallholders, sharing systems for common-pool water resources, to the employment of women in local retail networks, all of which involve complex social institutions and customs.
FAO’s report suggests that increased demand on fishmeal prices due to aquaculture’s needs is unlikely to impact prices as alternatives, such as feed based on vegetable proteins, will be developed to meet needs and respond to price pressures. Such innovation is particularly important for Africa, where fish farmers rely heavily on imported feedstuff from European countries.
A notable shift is already underway as Peruvian anchovy, Chilean mackerel and Scandinavian herring are increasingly being used for direct human consumption while more efficient use of other fish byproducts are being used for fish oil production.
Business Development and Planning
Economic Development Specialist
Aquaculture and Lifestock Support Service
Hawaii Dept. of Agriculture
Education and Extension
Univ of Hawaii at Manoa
College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources
Aquaculture Extension Specialist
Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture (CTSA)
The Oceanic Institute
41-202 Kalanianaole Hwy.
Waimanalo, HI 96795
Tel: (808) 956-3385
Hawaii Aquaculture and Aquaponics Association
PO Box 29398
Honolulu, Hawaii 96820
Hawaii’s tropical environment is suitable for growing warm-water fish like tilapia.
More information about tilapia culture in Hawaii
- Aquaculture of Tilapia in Hawaii
- Aquaponic systems grow food sustainably
- Growing Tilapia and Vegetable with Aquaponics
- Tilapia looking for a little respect
Hawaii has a long history of encouraging and supporting commercial aquaculture development that continues today. The state wants to use this food production technology to expand and diversify the economies on all islands and enhance overall island food selfsufficiency.
The Islands have the longest tradition of aquaculture in the United States, as evidenced by the many remarkable remnants of the coastal, stone‐walled fish ponds constructed by early Hawaiians over 800 years ago.