Category Archives: Breeding & Hatcheries
A 2014 report on aquaculture in Egypt presents some interesting information:
- Despite the pressure on water, Egypt has the largest aquaculture industry in Africa with a market value of over $1.3 billion.
- The industry now provides 65% of the country’s fish needs, with virtually all the output coming from small and medium-scale privately owned farms.
- The main farmed fish is Nile tilapia and Egypt is the world’s second largest producer of farmed tilapia after China. Grey mullet and carp are also farmed, sometimes in mixed ponds with tilapia.
- From small levels of production in the early 1990s fish farming has expanded rapidly while capture fishing has remained fairly constant, even declining somewhat after peaking at the beginning of the 21st century.
- Aquaculture is also important in providing employment to an estimated 100,000 people of whom 50% are youth.
- With the exception of Fayoum, aquaculture takes place in the Nile Delta region and mainly around the Northern Lakes area.
Citation: Mur, R. 2014. Development of the aquaculture value chain in Egypt: Report of the National Innovation Platform Workshop, Cairo, 19-20 February 2014. Cairo: WorldFish.
An Industry Assessment of Tilapia Farming in Egypt
Dr. Adel A. Shaheen, B.V.Sc., M.V.Sc., Ph.D.
Professor of fish diseases & management Head Department of fish diseases & management
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Benha University Moshtohor – Toukh – Egypt
2.5. Status of fish production in Egypt
Capture fisheries in Egypt are in decline due to; overfishing, pollution, illegal, unreported and Unregulated fishing (IUU), relaxation in the implementation of laws and regulations, lack of interest in clearing Straits and waterways, poor sustainable management of fisheries and aquaculture, illegal fishing operations of fry. In addition to the building of Aswan High Dam (that reduced the annual flood cycle of the Nile), the application of partial pond flushing, aeration and sex reversal are the major steps that contributed to the expansion,
intensification and growth of total tilapia production in ponds in Egypt.
The General Authority for Fish Resources Development (GAFRD) planned two-sided strategy aims to increase the productivity of freshwater aquaculture operations, while encouraging investment in marine aquaculture.
A cooperation agreement between Egypt’s General Authority for Fish Resources Development (GAFRD) and Vietnam’s Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) inked in May sets a framework for joint fisheries development. The protocol encourages researchers, trainers and quality control technicians in the two countries to share data, and calls for exchange visits of fisheries and aquaculture officials
A series of high quality aquaculture training videos, designed to teach Egyptian fish farmers the industry’s best management practices, has recently been released.
Produced by WorldFish, an international nonprofit research organization, the ten short videos are being used to train local fish farmers in the most effective ways to boost the production and quality of farmed fish.
Available in Arabic with English subtitles, the videos cover all aspects of aquaculture from pond preparation and fish health care, to how to transport and handle live fish.
“These videos are good learning tool for fish farmers to show them the industry’s best management practices in a simplified way”, says Dr. Diaa Al-Kenawy, Research Scientist at WorldFish.
“Both the trainers and the farmers found the videos very useful because they explain all fish farming stages from site selection and pond design to harvest and post-harvest treatment”, he adds.
The videos are part of the Improving Employment and Income through the Development of Egypt’s Aquaculture Sector (IEIDEAS) project, which aims to strengthen and develop the country’s US$1.5 billion aquaculture industry and generate more employment in the sector.
The IEIDEAS project is part of the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish, which aims to increase the productivity of small-scale livestock and fish systems in sustainable ways, making meat, milk and fish more available and affordable to poor consumers across the developing world.
Strengthening the aquaculture industry in Egypt will help to secure the livelihoods of over 100,000 men and women employed in the sector, and ensure an affordable source of animal protein for the millions of poor who depend on fish.
While the videos are targeted at Egyptian fish farmers, they offer industry tips that will benefit pond-based aquaculture producers around the world.
Watch the videos. http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_5s5CPGqCKQtv15flpx4UKDltm3JyEIM
WorldFish, a member of the CGIAR Consortium, is an international, nonprofit research organization committed to reducing poverty and hunger through fisheries and aquaculture.
CGIAR is a global agriculture research partnership for a food secure future. Its science is carried out by the 15 research centers who are members of the CGIAR Consortium in collaboration with hundreds of partner organizations.
For more information or to request an interview please contact:
Diane Shohet, Director, Communications and Marketing, WorldFish
Tel: +6017 474 8606
Luanda — The first National Centre for Tilapia Hatchery will be inaugurated on Friday in Massangano commune, Cambambe municipality, northern Cuanza Norte province, Angop learnt on Thursday.
According to a press release from the Ministry of Fisheries, the project, an investment estimated at 10 million US dollars, will have a juvenile fish production unit (newly hatched fish) Tilapia.
The First National Tilapia Hatchery Centre will have an installed capacity of an annual output of two million of juvenile fish of quality, to enhance the aquaculture sector, specifically in the promotion of freshwater fish culture.
In Angola, aquaculture is listed as one of the priority sub-sectors and can play an important role in the diversification of the economy, with the potential to intense development, turning the country into a major producing nation of fish.
Aquaculture also aims to integrate its products in the supply chain of fisheries, aiming to reduce imports and create surpluses for exports.
The undertaking is the first of its kind infrastructure in the country, equipped with the latest technology and highly qualified professional teams and has a valence of research focused on training future researchers and others of the fisheries sector.
Investment combines the economic aspect of intensive production with the relevant scientific and social aspects, being generator of new job opportunities.
The larval reproduction stage includes reproduction tanks and breeders management incubator for hatching eggs, larvae management tanks and also breeding pre-tanks.
At its full operation, the centre will be able to especially encourage small aquaculture production of many families of Cuanza Norte province and other neighboring provinces.
Tilapia are prolific breeders. With the proper environmental conditions, tilapia can easily reproduce and provide ample fish for home consumption or for growout for commercial farms.
Tilapia are classified as either mouth brooders or substrate spawners.
The members of the Oreochromis genus are maternal mouth brooders and are a common choice for aquaponics or aquaculture. In terms of popularity, the Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) is the most widely cultured tilapia, followed by Blue tilapia (O. aureus) and Mozambique tilapia (O. mossambicus).
The Oreochromis display an elaborate courtship behavior. After building a nest, the male aggressively repels other males that enter in proximity to the nest. When ready to spawn, the male displays a darkened color and leads a female to the nesting area. The fish then swim around the nest and the male will butt against the female genital area to induce egg laying. The courtship is often brief, lasting only a few minutes in many cases and seldom more than a few hours.
The female tilapia lay their eggs in pits (nests) and after fertilization by males, the female collects the eggs in her mouth (buccal cavity) to maintain them until hatching.
Other tilapia display different mouth brooding behavior. Sarotherodon galilaeus are biparental , with both parents brooding the eggs and defending the newly hatched fish.
The male Sarotherodon melanotheron is the parent that performs the mouth brooding, while the female leaves the nest.
Members of the Tilapia genus are substrate spawners. The male and females will build a nest and defend it together. A male and female will typically form a bonded mating pair and courtship can last up to a week, but usually takes place over several days.
Females will first lay their eggs in pits (nesting area) dug in the bottom of a lake or pond. You can simulate this condition in a tank by adding some substrate (e.g. gravel) which allows the tilapia to evacuate a nesting area. The male will then spawn and fertilize the eggs. After fertilization, the parents guard the eggs, chasing away predators and making sure proper aeration is maintained for hatching.
Tilapia rendalli and Tilapia zillii are two popular commercially-raised species that are substrate spawners.